eng-spa1015

Fifth Phase

We must continue with verb conjugation. We have a lot more verb tenses to explore in order to fully master the Spanish language. To speak, read, and write in a new language you must understand the mechanism behind it. It is getting more complicated. However, there is nothing you can not do when you have your mind set to it. Let’s go for it!

The conditional tense
The conditional tense is used to express something that could have happened, (hypothesis) pending a condition. Generally it refers to the future in relation to the past. Sometimes it is used to express a probability; something that we are not sure of. To create the conditional tense, the following letters are added at the end of the infinitive form of the verb: -ía, -ías, -ía, -íamos, -íais, -ían. It does not matter which group the verb belongs to. Let us take a look at the following example:
Roberto me dijó que me traería el dinero——-Roberto told me that he would bring me the money.
Another example:
¿Lograría él un diploma dentro de dos años?———Would he obtain a diploma within two years?
Sometimes the conditional is used as a form of courtesy as in the following example:
¿Podrías ayudarme?—–Could you help me?

Conditional tense (regular verbs)
This is how the verb hablar is conjugated at the conditional present tense:
Hablaría—————-I would talk
Hablarías
Hablaría
Hablaríamos
Hablaríais
Hablarían

This is how the verb comer is conjugated at the conditional present tense:
Comería—————I would eat
Comerías
Comería
Comeríamos
Comeríais
Comerían

This is how the verb escribir is conjugated at the conditional present tense:
Escribiría————-I would write
Escribirías
Escribiría
Escribiríamos
Escribiríais
Escribirían
The verb “deber” ——–(to have to) is oftenly used at the conditional as in this example:
Yo debería ir a la fiesta mañana—————I should go to the party tomorrow.

The expression “tener que” is used in the same fashion.
Yo tendría que salir temprano para evitar el tráfico—–I should leave early to avoid the traffic.
The conditional (irregular verbs)
For the irregular verbs, we may take a look at the way those verbs were conjugated in the future tense (fourth phase). They have the same changes at their root in the conditional tense. We only add -ía, -ías, -ía, -íamos, -íais, -ían at their end as in the following:
Poder————-podría, ías, ía,……
Saber————-sabría, ías, ía……
Decir————-diría, ías, ía,……
Querrer———-querría, ías, ía,……
Salir————–saldría, ías, ía,……
Tener————-tendría, ías, ía,……
Hacer————haría, ías, ía,……
Poner————pondría, ías, ía,……
Venir————vendría, ías, ía,……
Valer————valdría, ías, ía,……

Vocabulary! Vocabulary!
Valer—————–to be worth
Poner—————–to put
Hacer—————–to do
Terminar————-to finish
Aprender————to learn
Leer——————to read
Permitir————–to allow
Romper————–to brake
Vaciar—————to empty
Morir—————-to die
Graduar————-to graduate
Empezar————-to begin

Do some practice!!!
Translate in English.
1. Ella pondría_______________
2. Nosotros escribiríamos_______
3. Ellos dirían________________
4. Yo haría__________________
5. Vosotros jugarías___________

Progressive tense
The progressive tense is used to express a continuous action or state. It is created by putting together a present participle and a conjugated form of the verb estar (to be). The present participle itself is formed by adding –ndo at the end of the verb as hablar + ndo—-hablando, comer + ndo—–comiendo, escribir + ndo—–escribiendo. Here are a few examples about how the progressive tense is used:

Estoy hablando—————I am talking (present tense)
Estabamos comiendo——–We were eating (impertect tense)
Estaré descansando———-I will be resting (future tense)

The progressive tense is sometimes used when there are two concurring actions as in the following example:
Yo estaba escribiendo cuando me llamó el profesor.——I was writing when the teacher called me.

The present participle is translated as follow:
Hablando————talking
Comiendo———–eating
Saliendo————-leaving
Leyendo————-reading
Corriendo———–running
Descansando——-resting

There aren’t too many irregular verbs used in the progressive form. Here are a few of them: ir——yendo, seguir—–siguiendo, dormir——durmiendo

Do some practice!!!
Write down the present participle form of the following verbs:
Comenzar_____________
Escribir_______________
Cazar________________
Mencionar____________
Leer_________________
Dormir_______________
Estar________________

Translate these sentences while using the progressive form:
They will arrive_______________ellos estaran llegando
I am talking__________________
I was dancing________________
I am watching TV_____________
Paul was running_____________
We will write________________

The present perfect tense
The present perfect tense is used to express something that has been fully completed in the past. It is formed by putting together the past participle of a verb and the conjugated form of the auxiliary verb haber (to have). The past participle is formed by adding –ado or –ido at the end of a verb as in hablar + ado—–hablado, comer +ido——–comido, permertir + ido——-permitido for the verbs that follow this rule.
Let us take a look at how the verb haber itself is conjugated at the present tense:
He————I have
Has———–You have
Ha————He (she) has
Hemos——We have
Habéis——You have
Han———They have

These are a few sentences in the present perfect tense.
He comido dos manzanas ayer———————I have eaten two apples yesterday
Nosotros hemos participado en la competición—–We have participated in the competition.
Maria y Pedro han bebido el jugo—————–Maria and Pedro have drunk the juice.

The following ten verbs have irregular past participle forms. They end in –to or –cho. They are frequently used in Spanish.
Escribir———escrito
Cubrir———–cubierto
Volver———-vuelto
Morir———–muerto
Abrir———–abierto
Ver————-visto
Romper——–roto
Poner———–puesto
Decir———–dicho
Hacer———-hecho

Attention! Attention!
Some verbs a have past participle that accept both auxiliaries (estar and haber) according to what is being expressed: an action or a state.
El motor está roto————-The engine is broken.
He roto el motor—————I have broken the engine.
And
No es permitido————–It is not allowed.
No le he permitido de salir———I have not allowed him to leave.

Do some practice!!!
Add one or more words to complete these sentences.
No han salido__________de la clase
Maria no ha hablado con____
Jorge ha abierto________
Hemos estudiado_______
Martinez ha bailado con__

Change the tense of these verbs from simple present to perfect present:
Escribimos una carta_______
Gutierez habla con Pedro___
Pongo mi maleta aquí______
Ellas trabajan con Miguel___
Aprendemos español_______

The past perfect tense
The past perfect tense as well as the present perfect tense requires two verbs in its formation: an auxiliary verb (haber) with another verb under the past participle form (habia + preparado). The past perfect tense is used to express an action that takes place before another action in the past. Since both actions have already taken place, habitually, they use the simple past tense (preterit) for the other action as in the following example:
Ella había preparado la comida cuando yo llegué————She had prepared the food when I arrived.
This is how the past perfect tense is conjugated:
Había + past participle of verb
Habías
Había
Habíamos
Habíais
Habían

Do some practice!!!
Write these verbs at the past perfect tense:
Entender (usted)_______usted había entendido
Decir (nosotros)_________
Hablar (ellos)___________
Comer (yo)____________
Ir (Pedro)______________
Volver (jim ak Ron)_____

When asking a question in the past perfect tense, the subject always follows the past participle. It does not get in between the auxiliary and the past participle. As an example, we have:
¿Donde habías trabajado tú?—–Where have you worked?

The future perfect tense
The future perfect and some other tenses are rarely used in the spoken language form. Since they exist, it is good to know about them. Those tenses are mostly used in literature. The perfect future tense is used to express an action that will take place before a well determined time in the future or another action in the future although it expresses a probability in the past. It is formed with the simple future tense of the verb (haber) + past participle as in:
Martinez habrá comido para las quatro——-Martinez will have eaten by 4 o’clock.

This is how they conjugate the future perfect tense:
Habré + past participle of verb
Habrás
Habrá
Habremos
Habréis
Habrán

The conditional perfect tense
The conditional perfect tense is used to express something that could have happened in the past and also the probability of something that has happened in the past. It is formed with the conditional tense of (haber) + (past participle). As an example, we have:
Me dijeron que lo habrían llevado——–They told me that they would have brought it.

This is how they conjugate the conditional perfect tense:
Habría + past participle of verb
Habrías
Habría
Habríamos
Habríais
Habrían

Do some practice!!!
Read then translate these sentences:
1. Me contaron que habrían traido toda la familia, pero no habia mucho tiempo
2. Sé que no lo habrías hecho solo
3. Yo habría comido todos los frutos
4. Habrían sido las ocho cuando ellas se fueron
5. Habríamos hablado toda la noche con el profesor

The subjunctive
Everything that we have seen so far, about verb conjugation, has been in the indicative mode. It is said that the indicative mode is based on reality whereas the subjunctive mode is lightly attached to reality. It is based on desire, will, emotion, doubt and wish as in the following example:
Yo quiero que tú vengas———–I want you to come.

The present subjunctive tense (regular verbs)
The present subjunctive tense is used where the speaker comments on some present or future action. It always appears in a dependent clause introduced by a conjunction (que) for example. It is clearer when the clauses are separated: one main clause and the dependant clause (s). For example we have:
Yo dudo / que hablen inglés bien—–I doubt that they speak English well.

This is how the regular verbs in –ar, -er, -ir are conjugated at the present subjunctive tense. Do not forget that they are always introduced by a conjunction or conjunctive expression such as: it is possible that, it is important that, etc…
The verbs in –ar as hablar:
Hable—————that I speak
Hables
Hable
Hablemos———that we speak
Habléis
Hablen

The verbs in –er as comer:
Coma—————that I eat
Comas
Coma
Comamos
Comáis
Coman————-that they eat

The verbs in -ir as escribir:
Escriba—————–that I write
Escribas
Escriba
Escribamos
Escribáis
Escriban

Do some practice!!!
Change the tense in these verbs from simple present tense to present subjunctive tense
Come__________coma
Estudias_______
Viene_________
Escribimos_____
Preparáis______
Vivo_________

The following verbs usually request the use of the subjunctive mode:
Querer————to want, to like
Preferir———–to prefer
Mandar———–to send
Exigir————-to demand
Desear————to desire
Pedir————–to ask
Sugerir————to suggest
Temer————-to be afraid of
Gustar————to like
Dudar————to doubt
Prohibir———-to prohibit, to prevent
Yo temo que ellos se pierdan——————I am afraid that they got lost.

The present subjunctive tense (irregular verbs).
As you have noticed previously that there were a lot of irregularities in the indicative mode, it is the same in the subjunctive mode.
This is how some irregular verbs are conjugated at the subjunctive present tense
Decir ——-diga, digas, diga, digamos, digáis, digan
Oir———–oiga, oigas, oiga, oigamos, oigáis, oigan
Poner——–ponga, pongas, ponga, pongamos, pongáis pongan
Hacer——–haga, hagas, haga, hagamos, hagáis, hagan
Tener——–tenga, tengas, tenga, tengamos, tengáis, tengan
Venir——–venga, vengas, venga, vengamos, vengáis, vengan
Traer——–traiga, traigas, traiga, traigamos, traigáis, traigan
Salir———salga, salgas, salga, salgamos, salgáis, salgan
Morir——–muera, mueras, muera, muramos, muráis, mueran
Dormir——duerma duermas, duerma, durmamos, durmáis, duerman
Vaciar——-vacíe, vacíes, vacíe, vaciemos, vaciéis, vacíen
Graduar—–gradúe, gradúes, gradúe, graduemos, gradúeis, gradúen
Ir————-vaya, vayas, vaya, vayamos, vayáis, vayan
Saber——–sepa, sepas, sepa, sepamos, sepáis, sepan
Ser———–sea, seas, sea, seamos, seáis, sean
Dar———–dé, des, dé, demos, deis, den
Estar———esté, estés, esté, estemos, estéis, estén

Do some practice!!!
Translate these sentences into English:
Dudo que el me hable de eso___________
Espero que Martinez venga mañana_____
Le exigen que él baje del auto__________
No creo que el nos permita ir___________
Espero que ellos nos perdonen_________
Quiero que tu conozcas a mis amigos_____
Es importante que recojamos la basura___

The past subjunctive tense (imperfect)
The past subjunctive tense is used in the same format as the the present subjunctive tense. However, what differentiates them is the verb tense in the main clause. It is either at the present perfect, the preterit, the past perfect or conditional. In other words, the main clause verb is always at a past tense or conditional to lead the dependant clause also to a past tense of the subjunctive mode. Here are a few examples:
Present perfect__ ellos han pedido que lo comprara—-They have asked that he bought it
Preterit__ellos pidieron que lo comprara——–They asked that he bought it.
Past perfect__ellos habian pedido que lo comprara—-they had asked that he bought it.
Conditional__Ellos pedirían que lo comprara——They would ask that he bought it

These three verbs: Querer, Deber, Poder are oftenly used to ask for something in a polite manner. Take a look at some phrase samples:
¿Quisieran ordenar más flores?———Would you order more flowers?
Debíeramos ir al cine——–We should go to the movies.
¿Pudieras hacerme un favor?—–Could you do me a favor?
¿Pudieras llevarle su medicina?——Would you bring him his medicine?

To form the past subjunctive tense, the base form (or root) of a verb at the third person plural of the simple past tense is taken with all the irregularities it might have; they change the –ron to –ra for the first person singular of the subjunctive. Then they conjugate it as follow:
Hablar____hablara, hablaras, hablara, hablaramos, hablarais, hablaran
Comer____comiera, comiras, comiera, comieramos, comierais, comieran
Decir_____dijera, dijeras, dijera, dijeramos, dijerais, dijeran

There is another form used for the past subjunctive tense. It is rarely used in spoken language. The verbs end as follow: habla-se, -ses, -se, -semos, -seis, sen. Here is an example:
El quizo que hablasemos del proyecto——He wanted that we spoke about the project.

Do some practice!!!
Change these verbs from subjunctive present tense to subjunctive past tense.
Que el quiera__________quisiera
Que usted dé__________
Que tú estudies________
Que vosotros salgais____
Que ellos hablen_______
Que ellos vengan______

The present perfect subjunctive tense
The present perfect subjunctive tense is used in a dependent clause where the action has taken place before the action in the main clause. We have the following example:
Dudo que ellas hayan llegado—— I doubt that they might have arrived.

Do not forget that in all the perfect tenses the auxiliary verb (haber) is used. In this example we have the present subjunctive tense of the verb haber + past participle of the verb llegar (hayan llegado).
The subjunctive present perfect tense is conjugated as follow:
Haya + past participle of verb
Hayas
Haya
Hayamos
Hayáis
Hayan

The past perfect subjunctive tense
The past perfect subjunctive is used to express an event or anything that happened before something else that might have happened, but did not. It is formed with the imperfect subjunctive tense of the verb (haber) + past participle of a verb
The past perfect subjunctive tense is conjugated as follow:
Hubiera + past participle of verb
Hubieras
Hubiera
Hubiéramos
Hubierais
Hubieran
As an example, we have:
Creía que Ud lo hubiera preparado———-I believed that you would have prepared it.

Do some practice!!!
Fill in the empty spaces with the correct tense of the verb haber:
Yo dudaba que ellos lo____________tomado
Era posible que ella lo_____________preparado
Le dijo que tú lo__________________comprado
Temían que tú y yo _______________viajado
Pensaba que él se lo_______________dicho

The future subjunctive tense
The future subjunctive is used in a similar fashion as the present subjunctive tense and has practically the same meaning. It is usually found in literary works.
The future subjunctive tense for the regular verbs is conjugated as follow:
Hablar____hablare, hablares, hablare, hablaremos, hablarais, hablaren
Comer____comiere, comieres, comiere, comiéremos, comiereis, comieren
Escribir___escribiere, escribieres, escribiere, escribiéremos, escribiereis, escribieren

The past perfect subjunctive with (si)
With the use of (si) we have a conditional sentence with two clauses: a dependent clause starting with (si) and a main or principal clause. When this verb tense is used, there is not only a condition but also some type of incertitude. Here is an example:
Si hubieras trabajado, te habría pagado—–If you had worked, I would have paid you.
Si yo hubiera estudiado, habría pasado el examen——–If I had studied, I would have passed the exam.

Do some practice!!!
Write the correct past perfect subjunctive tense in these sentences:
Habrías llegado a tiempo si_______________más rápido (manejar)
Habríais celebrado si ellas________________(ganar)
Habría ido a la playa si ella_______________nadar (aprender)
Yo habría comido si él __________________ la comida (preparar)
Habríamos bailado si ellos________________la música (jugar)

Adverbial clause
The subjunctive is also used with a series of adverbs and adjectives. You have to remember that once a subjunctive is used, there is incertitude. We have conjunctions or conjunctive expressions like: a fin de que (in order to), sin que (without), a menos que (unless), con tal que (so that), para que (so that), en caso que (in case that), antes de que (before that). All of these are followed by the subjunctive. Here are a few examples:
1. No llegaré tarde para que podamos ir al ciné juntos———I will not come late so that we could go to the movies together.
2. Martinez estudiaba antes de que tomaran la prueba———-Martinez was studying before they could take the test.
3. Yo voy a traer mi medicina en caso de que no me sienta bien—–I am going to carry my medicine in case I would not feel good.

Adjective clause
In an adjective clause you find a group of words that explains the intention or desire of the interlocutor. It is always introduced by the word (que) followed by the subjunctive.

Here are a few examples:
1. Necesito alguien que hable español——-I need someone who spesks Spanish
2. Busco un lugar donde pueda nadar——-I look for some place where I can swim.
3. No hay nada que me interese aquí——–There is nothing that interests me here.

Attention! Attention!
When expressing yourself, do not make it a habit of using the subjunctive unless you want express doubt, emotion, desire, wish or any unspecific message.
Pay attention to the difference between these two sentences:
Necesita una casa que tiene una piscina————–He (she) needs a house with a swimming pool.
Necesita una casa que tenga una piscina———-He (she) needs a house that might have a swimming pool.

The use of the expressions “there is, there are”
In Spanish, the expressions there is and there are are simply translated to “hay”. As examples, we may use the followings:
Hay dos camas en el cuarto——————–there are two beds in the room
Hay très baños en mi casa———————-there are three baths in my house
Hay un plato sobre la mesa——————–there is a plate on the table

When you want to ask a question, you simply place “hay” at the beginning of the sentence
¿Hay un hotel en el centro?——————–is there a hotel downtown?
¿hay una pluma en su bolsillo?——————is there a pen in your pocket?
¿Hay sillas en el cuarto?————————-Are there chairs in the room?
Do some practice!!!
Write a few sentences using the word “hay” in both declarative and interrogative aspects

The verb (Gustar)
The verb gustar has something very particular to it. This is the reason why I have selected it by itself to talk about it. Verbs like gustar have two forms that have to agree with the subject: gusta (it is liked) and gustan (they are liked). You must also have an I.O. before gustar to tell who relates to the thing being liked (by me, by you, etc…) it is translated in other languages in a sort of contradictory way.
Me gusta———-I like it
Me gustan——–I like them
Te gusta———-you like it
Te gustan ——-you like them
Le gusta———-he (she, you) like it
Le gustan——–he (she, you) like them
Nos gusta——–we like it
Nos gustan——we like them
Os gusta———you like it
Os gustan——–you like them
Les gusta———they (you) like it
Les gustan——-they (you) like them

Me gusta este arból——-I like this tree.
Le gustan las flores——-He (she, you) like the flowers.
Here are a few other verbs similar to gustar: encantar, faltar, importar, tocar, interesar.

The infinitive form (use)
Sometimes while expressing oneself, it happens that two verbs are used right after one another. The second verb takes its infinitive form. There is an exception to the verbs (haber, estar).
Here are a few examples:
Yo quiero comer———I want to eat.
Usted debe regresar a las dos—————You must come back at 2 o’clock

Sometimes a preposition is inserted between the verbs as follow:
Vamos a comer———–Let’s go to eat.
Comenzó a llover——–I started to rain.
Insisto en manejar ——-I insist to drive.
Yo trataré de entrar—–I will try to enter.

  • The infinitive form is also used in the following ways:
    1. As a noun: El leer es importante——Reading is important
    2. In a commanding manner: ¡No correr!——————–Do not run!
    3. In a given expression: A estudiar!—– Studying time!
    4. After an impersonal expression: Es difícil hablar inglés—— It is difficult to speak English.
    5. After different prepositions: Lo hago para ganar——I do it to win.
    6. After a question: ¿Sabía bailar?——–He knew how to dance?
    7. After “tener que” : Tenían que continuar——They had to continue.
    8. After “ir + a”: Voy a descansarme—— I am going to take a rest.

Do some practice!!!
From what you have learned about infinitives, formulate a few sentences on your own.

Reflexive verbs
We have previously talked about the reflexive verbs. They have those two letters (se) at the end of their infinitive form in Spanish. The following reflexive pronouns (me, te, se, nos, os, se) are necessary in their conjugation. This makes it easy for you to identify them. They are used as follow:
Yo me baño———I bathe myself
Tú te bañas———-You bathe yourself
El, ella, Ud se baña———–He, she, you bathe himself……..
Nosotros nos bañamos————We bathe ourselves
Vosotros os bañáis—————–you bathe yourselves
Ellos, ellas, Uds se bañan———They bathe themselves

A few other reflexive verbs:
Llamarse—-to name
Afeitarse—to shave
Lavarse—-to wash
Ponerse—-to put up
Despertarse—-to wake up

Not all verbs that have this type of ending are used in the reflexive state all the time.

The following verbs are essentially reflexive:
Acordarse———to remember
Atreverse a——-to dare
Arrepentirse——to repent
Desmayarse——to faint
Jactarse————to boast
Despertarse——-to wake up

Do some practice!!!
Write the following sentences correctly at the simple present tense, then translate them:
Los niños (lavarse) las manos con agua_______se lavan
Mario (quitarse) la camiseta y (ponerse) una otra______
Trabajamos todo el día y (acostarse) temprano________
Cada mañana tú (afeitarse)_______
No (venderse) licor en esa tienda________
Esta mañana me (despertarse) tarde_________

The passive voice
In the Spanish language as well as many others, there is what is called the passive voice. Up to this moment, all the conjugation we have gone through has taken into account the active voice. In the active voice, the subject does the action; but, in the passive voice, the subject is affected by what has taken place. In Spanish the passive voice is formed this way: the conjugated verb Ser + past particple + por
Take a look at these sentences:
Active voice____ellos sirvieron el desayuno———they served the breakfast.
Passive voice___el desayuno fue servido por ellos—-the breakfast was served by them.

Do some practice!!!
Chanje these sentences from active voice to passive voice:
Maria trajo la comida_________la comida fue traido por Maria
El autor escribió un nuevo libro_______
El vecino cerró las ventanas_________
Paulo preparó el proyecto___________
Nosotros hemos cambiado el número____
Please review what you have learned in this phase before moving to the next and final one. Make sure you have mastered your verb conjugation which is very important.
To continue to the sixth phase, simply press —– next

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