Third Phase

Vocabulary! Vocabulary!
Book ————————libro
Notebook ——————-cuaderno
New ————————-nuevo
Old ————————–viejo
Fierce ————————bravo
Tree ————————–arból
Telephone ——————-teléfono
Mountain ——————–montaña
Door ————————–puerta
Table ————————-mesa
Chair ————————-silla
Good ————————–bueno
Bad —————————-malo
To leave ———————-salir
To enter ———————-entrar
To come ———————-venir
To go ————————–ir
To send ———————–mandar
To ask ————————-pedir, preguntar
To need ———————–necesitar
To want ———————–querer
To like ————————-querer
To love ————————amar
Morning ———————–mañana (la)
Afternoon ———————tarde
Night —————————noche
Last night———————-anoche
Today ————————–hoy
Tomorrow ———————mañana (el)
Yesterday ———————-ayer
Day —————————–día
So-so—————————-asi asi

In the third phase, we will continue with the adjectives. We are going to see demonstrative adjectives. In demonstrative we see demonstration, show off, pointing to as if we were pointing to something or someone.

Demonstrative Adjective
Demonstrative adjective point to three different locations: close to the speaker, close to the person(s) being spoken to, and away from both of them.

First: close to the speaker. The word (este) is used for masculine singular, the word (esta) is used for feminine singular, the word (estos) is used for masculine plural and the word (estas) is used for feminine plural. For example:
Este cuaderno es nuevo—————-this notebook is new
Estos libros son viejos—————–these books are old

Second: close to the person(s) being spoken to. The word (ese) is used for masculine singular, the word (esa) is used for feminine singular, the word (esos) is used for masculine plural and the word (esas) is used for feminine plural. For example:
Esa silla es grande———————–that is a big chair
Esas sillas son grandes——————these chairs are big

Third: away from both interlocutors. The word (aquel) is used for masculine singular, the word (aquella) is used for feminine singular, the word (aquellos) is used for masculine plural and the word (aquellas) is used for feminine plural. For example:
Aquel animal es bravo—————–that animal is fierce
Aquellos animales son bravos——–these animals are fierce

este, esta—————–this (in English)
estos, estas————–these (in English)
ese, esa——————that (in English)
esos, esas—————-those (in English)
aquel, aquella———–that (in English)
aquellos, aquellas——those (in English)

While practicing your demonstratives, use your finger to point around you.

Do some practice!!!
Tell close to whom are these.
Esta puerta______________
Este libro_______________
Ese teléfono_____________
Aquel arból______________
Aquella montaña_________
Esa mujer_______________

Demonstrative pronouns
The same words that are used for demonstrative adjectives are also used as demonstrative pronouns with two main differences. You should pay close attention to them and understand how it works.
The first difference is that they carry an accent mark (ésta, ésos, aquéllas)
For example: ése es mío——-Maria no quiere éstas
The second difference is that they stand by themselves. No words accompany them.
They are translated as same as demonstrative adjectives.

Maria no quiere éstas———-Maria does not want these.
ése es mío————————that is for me
Necesito aquéllos—————I need those.

As we have seen that there is a neuter article (lo), there are three neuter demonstrative pronouns. They are: esto, eso, aquello. They do not carry any accent mark.
No entiendo esto——————–I do not understand this
Eso es todo—————————that is all
¿Qué es esto?————————what is this?

Do some practice!!!
Use the proper demonstrative adjective and translate to Spanish.
This book (I am holding it)_____________
That book (you are holding it)_____________
That tree (it is over there)________
That dog (it is close to you)________________
This cat (I am holding it)____________

Possessive adjectives
In possessive adjectives, we see the word possession like for me, for you, or for them. It answers to the question “for whom”. For example, if it is for me, (mi) is used as in: ( mi amigo, mis amigos) my friend or my friends. Here is the list of possessive adjectives:
For me———————mi (singular) or mis (plural)
For you——————–tu or tus
For him——————–su or sus
For us———————-nuestro/a or nuestros/as
For you (many)———–vuestro/a or vuestros/as
For them——————-su or sus

Another way to express possession for things is as in the following examples, using the word (de) in the sentence.
The house window is open————la ventana de la casa está abierta
The car door is closed——————la puerta del carro está cerrada

Do some practice!!!
Translate the following sentences to Spanish.
This is my telephone________________
Where is your notebook?_____________
My book is on the chair______________
Your dogs are fierce________________
My father is not here________________
His sister is sick____________________
The door key is white________________
The house color is green______________
My cousin is Paul’s friend____________
Roberto is our friend_________________

Possessive pronouns
A possessive pronoun is a word that expresses possession and at the same time replaces a noun. It is formed by adding an article (el, la, los, las) in front of what is called an elongated form of possessive adjective. For example we have the following sentence:
Su cuaderno es azúl, el mío es blanco——-his notebook is blue, mine is white.

For me—————–mine————–mío(s) / mía(s)
For you—————-yours————–tuyo(s) / tuya(s)
For him—————-his (hers) ——–suyo(s) / suya(s)
For us——————ours—————nuestro(s) / nuestra(s)

Your shirt is dirty but mine is clean———–tu camisa es sucia pero la mía es limpia
Your parents are poor but mine are rich——tus padres son pobres pero los míos son ricos

Do some practice!!!
Write more phrases expressing possession using the vocabulary list.

Personal pronouns
Although we have seen the use of personal pronouns from the very beginning, let us go over it one more time.

Yo——————I (first person)
Tú——————You (second person) informal
él——————-He (third person masculine)
Ella—————–She (third person feminine)
Ud—————–You (second person) formal

Nosotros/as——We (first person)
Vosotros/as——You (second person) informal
Ellos—————They (third person masculine)
Ellas—————They (third person feminine)
Uds—————-You (second person) formal

The forms (Ud, Uds) that are pronounced usted and ustedes are used to show respect while addressing older people, people who are highly regarded in society and people that you meet for the first time.

Prepositional pronouns
In Spanish there is what is called prepositional pronouns. The reason they are so called is because they are used with a preposition (por, para, con, de, etc…). They are used as object, not as subject. They are:

él——————-him (masculine)
Ella—————-her (feminine)
Ud—————–you (formal)

Ellos—————them (masculine)
Ellas—————you (feminine)
Uds—————-you (formal) many

Here are a few sentences showing how they are used:
This pencil is mine——————este lapiz es para mí
This pen is his———————–esta pluma es para él
Those books are ours—————esos libros son para nosotros

Be very careful when using the Spanish words (mí and tí) after the preposition (con). They become only one word as in:
Do you want to come with me?————–¿Quieres venir conmigo?
I can not go with you————————–Yo no puedo ir contigo.

Indirect and direct object pronouns D.O. and I.O.

The followings are indirect object pronouns (me, te, le ,nos, os, les). They are habitually placed before the verb in a sentence and are used as in:
El me habla de su vida———————–he tells (speaks) me about his life
Yo te doy dos pesos————————–I give you two pesos
Me——————-about “me”
Te——————–about “you”
Le——————–about “him, her”
Nos——————about “us”
Os——————–about “you” (many)
Les——————-about “them”

Ella no nos dice la verdad———————-she does not tell us the truth
Mi madre me compró una camiseta———-my mother bought me a T-shirt

When an order is being given (imperative), the pronoun is placed after the verb as in:
¡Diganos la verdad!——————tell us the truth!
¡Hableme de ella!——————–tell me about her!

Do some practice!!!
Replace one I.O. in these phrases by another I.O.
El me habla de Marcelo________________él te habla de Marcelo
El nos dijo la verdad__________________
Harry le mando un billete______________
Martinez les saluda___________________
Jose te enseña las leyes________________

You know whether you are in presence of of an I.O. or a D.O. by asking the question (what) or (whom). If the answer matches the (what) question, it is a D.O. If it matches the (whom) question, it is an I.O. Sometimes, some phrases contain both I.O. and D.O. as in the following example:
Mi madre me la (camiseta) compró ayer————-my mother bought it for me yesterday
Mi madre_________subject
Me______________I.O. pronoun (whom) me
La______________D.O. pronoun (what) la for T-shirt
Ayer____________adverb (time)

As D.O. pronouns we have (lo, la, los, las)

Attention! Attention!
When the D.O. and the I.O. are in a sentence where the I.O. is at the third person, it has a tendancy to create some confusion. Therefore (le or les) are replaced with (se) as in the following examples:
El (le) lo dijo_________él se lo dijo——–he told him
Ella (les) la mandó____ella se la mandó—she sent it to them

Be careful when using (se) because it might have a lot different meanings in a sentence. To avoid confusion, it is mostly used in a sense where there is a repetition:
Se lo mandé a él——————-I sent it to him
Se lo mandé a ellas—————I sent it to them
Se lo explicamos a él————-We explain it to him
¡Dígaselo a Roberto!————-Say it to Roberto!

Do some practice!!!
Rewrite these sentences that have both I.O. and D.O. using (se).
Le mandamos la pizara al maestro_____ (le+lo) – Se la mandamos al maestro
Le venden los pollos a Polina_________ (le+los) ______________________
Les compra computadoras a sus hijos___ (les+las) _____________________
Les explicamos el problema a ellos_____ (les+lo) ______________________

Relative pronouns
Relative pronouns are used to connect two or more clauses that have some type of relationship. Here are some relative pronouns.
Masculine singular forms:
El que
El cual

Feminine singular forms:
La que
La cual

Masculine plural forms:
Los que
Los cuales

Feminine plural forms:
Las que
Las cuales

You were already given an example. Here are two more examples where you literally take two sentences and you join them using a relative pronoun:

Doy comida a esa jóven. Esa jóven vive en el parque
Esa jóven a quien doy comida vive en el parque—–this young (girl) to whom I give the food lives in the park.

La mujer es muy bella. Sus hijos viven en Alemania.
La mujer cuyas hijos viven en Alemania es muy bella—-the lady whose children live in Germany is very beautiful.

Vocabulary! Vocabulary!
Student ————————estudiante, alumno
To understand—————entender
To prepare——————–preparar
To write———————–escribir
To work———————–trabajar
To invite———————-invitar
To help———————–ayudar

Connect the following sentences using a relative pronoun:
Los papeles son importantes. Los papeles son sobre la mesa.
Los alumnos son felices. Los alumnos son en mi clase.
Los frutos son muy buenos. Los frutos son en mi jardín.
La señora vive en la comunidad. La señora tiene perros.
Los estudiantes son franceses. Los estudiantes hablan inglés.

There is also a neuter form (lo que, lo cual). It is often used as in the following example:
Ellos van a la iglesia cada domingo, lo cual es muy bueno por su fe.—–they go to church every Sunday that is very good for their faith.
No entiendo lo que me dices———-I do not understand what you tell me

Do some practice!!!
Write a few sentences using the following relative pronouns.
La cual______________________
Las que______________________
El que_______________________
Lo que_______________________

A preposition is a word that is used in order to create some kind of transition within a sentence. It makes the sentence experience a very smooth one. There are a lot of prepositions in Spanish. Here is a partial list:
a———————–to, in the direction of
antes de————–before
cerca de————–near
de———————-of, meaning possession
debajo de————-underneath
dentro de————-inside of
después de———–after
detrás de————-behind
en frente de ———in front of
fuera de————–away from
lejos de—————far from
sin ——————–without
sobre——————on, over

Some of these prepositions like (de) for example may be used in ways that have different meanings. It is not difficult to be determined while conversing with someone or reading.
Different uses of the preposition (de):
Jorge es el hombre de pelo largo——–Jorge is tne man with long hair.

El apellido de Jorge es Martinez——-Jorge’s last name is Martinez.

Yo soy de Haiti—————————-I am from Haiti

Tengo un collar de oro——————–I have a gold chain

¿Donde es la caja de libros?————–Where is the book box?

Están saliendo de la oficina————–They are leaving the office

Sufren de malnutricion——————-They suffer from malnutrition.

Different uses of the preposition (a):
Voy al cine———————————–I am going to the movies
Salgo a comer——————————–I am going out to eat.
Yo hablo a Roberto————————-I talk to Roberto
Invitamos a Paul—————————–We invite Paul

Lo hacen a la italiana———————–They do it the italian way
Me pagan diez pesos al día—————-They pay me 10 pesos a day.

Está a dos millas—————————-It is two miles away

Do some practice!!!
Translate these phrases!
Vamos a la playa_____________________
Escribimos a la familia________________
Llamamos al doctor__________________
Ayudamos a los amigos_______________
Trabajamos a los dos_________________
Visitamos a Raul____________________
No le hablamos de ella________________
Le preparamos a mano________________

The use of preposition con
The preposition (con) means with. However, it is often used in different meanings such as possession, method, description, relation etc…
Viven con mis amigos——————They live with my friends
¿Cual es la direccíon de la señora con los gatos?——Where does the lady with the cats live?
¡Llama a la mujer con pelo corto!————————Call the lady with short hair!
Lavamos los carros con mucho agua——————-We wash the cars with a lot of water.
Joshua desempeña su papel con mucho amor——–Josua plays his role with a lot of love.

Here are a few examples where con, combined with the verb estar, has different meanings

Estamos contigo————————we are with you
Estamos con computadoras———–we have computers
Estamos con pelo largo—————-we have long hair
Estamos con prisa———————-we are in a hurry
Estamos con zapatos blancos———we are wearing white shoes
Estamos con tráfico——————–we are in a traffic jam
Estamos con timidez——————-we are shy
Estamos con sed————————we are thirsty

The use of the prepositions (por) and (para)
Although both have a close meaning, they are used in different circumstances. Para is used for something projected to the future while por is used mostly for the past.

Tengo cita para mañana————————-I have an appointment for tomorrow.
He vivido aquí por tres días———————I lived here for three days.
Maria viene para ayudarnos——————–Maria will come to help us.
No puedes entrar por esta puerta————–You can not come in through this door.
¿Cuanto pagó por este libro?——————-How much did you pay for this book
Había un arból por allí————————–There was a tree there.
El vaso es para el agua————————–This glass is for water.
Estoy aquí para ayudarte————————I am here to help you
No es para lavar———————————-Do not wash it

An adverb in a sentence responds to a series of questions like “ how” (adverb of manner), “when” (adverb of time), “where” (adverb of location) and “how many” (adverb of quantity). In spanish, adverbs are mostly formed by adding –mente to the feminine form of an adjective.

Adverb (manner)
Clara———————- clear————————-claramente

For adjectives without a feminine form, -mente is added at the end.

There is a group of adjectives that are irregular. The suffix mente is not used. They do not change.
Tanto———————-as much as—————-tanto
Mucho———————a lot———————–mucho
Poco———————–a little———————-poco

Do some practice!!!
Change theses adjectives into adverbs.

Somrtimes adverbs are used just like adjectives in Spanish in order to establish comparison such as in the following example:
Paula maneja menos cuidadosamente que Noberto—-Paula drives with less care than Noberto

Adverb (time)
Anteayer———————–the other day

Adverb (location)
Encima de——————–close to
Enfrente de——————in front of
Fuera de———————-away from
Lejos de———————-far from
Detras (tras)—————–behind, after
Frente————————-in front
Al lado de——————-besides
Debajo de——————–underneath
A la izquierda—————to the left
A la derecha—————–to the right
Derecho———————-straight ahead

Adverb (quantity)
Demasiado——————-too much
Mucho————————a lot
Muy—————————a lot
Poco————————–a little
Tanto————————-so much

To some adverbs of quantity are added a suffix –ito or –isimo, after minor changes in their root form, in order to stress on their meaning such as in:
(poco) they add –ito (poquito) meaning very little
Yo quiero un poquito—————I want very little
(mucho) they add –ísimo (muchísimo) meaning a lot
Yo te quiero muchísimo————I love you a lot
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